When the foliage of Büyükada outside the settled areas is studied, it can be seen that coniferous forests (Pinus brutia Ten.)with Mediterranean scrub ground cover is widespread. The only tree species forming forests on the island are red pines. As the island is on the northmost border of the natural domain of red pines in Turkey, the soil cover is very shallow, and the trees have been under human influence for centuries, the individual trees are misshapen and stunted.
The second type of native foliage on the island is Mediterranean scrub. Mediterranean scrub is the most characteristic among the plant life on the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The Mediterranean scrub elements secondarily formed on the island are quite tall. On the other hand, on the settled areas of the island, many exotic plants have adapted to the conditions.